都市における自然の便益/Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Valueのメモ


大都市における自然の便益に関して、科学的根拠データをレビューしたレポートが発表されています。

シアトル大のKathleen L. Wolf先生らが発表した、「Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value」では、都市内の自然が人の健康や幸福、その他機能改善などに都市住民に対して多様な便益をもたらすことを紹介しています。

考察では以下のように記述されています。(本文から転載)

”Discussion: Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed.”


本文中には、以下の項目に関して、都市の自然がもたらす便益の測定方法や測定結果が多くの引用・参考文献とともに紹介されています。


Environmental fitness.
  Air pollution.
  Stormwater runoff.
  Heat effects.
  Noise abatement.
Wellness support.
  Active living.
  Stress relief.
  Mental health
  Urban food and foraging
  Respiratory health.
Supportive spaces.
  Mental function.
  Attention deficit disorder (ADD).
Healing spaces.
  Physical healing.
  Horticulture and nature therapy.
Amenities and aesthetics
Community.
  Crime and safety.


このような横断的な効果検証に関して、いくつかの課題も提示されていますが、今後、根拠データの普及啓発と政策面に活用できるとの指摘に納得です。

”Although it is not necessary to frame all health and well-being outcomes in monetary terms, doing so is often effective at capturing both the public’s attention as well as that of governmental leaders and policy makers.”


以上、備忘録として、、


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