Our Built and Natural Environments/EPA webinar



米国EPAから、まちづくりが自然環境や人間の健康にどのような影響を与えるのかを解説した表記テクニカルレビューが発表されています

http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/built.htm

ここでは人口増や交通量増加に伴う生物多様性の劣化や水の問題、交通事故死などをレポートするとともに

その解決策として土地利用や交通計画を見直すことで、以下のように自然環境保全や住民の健康確保が可能になることを示しています

(英文原文のまま)


  • Biodiversity: For nearly all plants and animals, species diversity declines with increases in the amount of impervious surface, road density, time since development, human population density, and building density (Pickett et al. 2011).

  • Water: Development in watersheds reduces the quantity, quality, and diversity of stream habitat for aquatic life (Booth and Bledsoe 2009). As water is polluted and degraded, it can become unfit for drinking, swimming, fishing, and other uses.

  • Air: More than 38 percent of national carbon monoxide emissions and 38 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions come from highway vehicles. Stationary sources like power plants that provide energy to homes, offices, and industries are also major sources of pollution (EPA 2012).

  • Climate Change: Greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector increased 19 percent between 1990 and 2010, due primarily to the increase in vehicle travel but partially offset by a slight increase in average fuel economy as older vehicles were removed from the roads (EPA 2012).

  • Health: While data are lacking to determine whether the built environment determines levels of physical activity and/or obesity, nearly 90 percent of studies found a positive association (Ferdinand et al. 2012), suggesting that the built environment is one of the many factors that could play a role in how much people exercise and levels of obesity.

  • Safety: Car crashes are the third leading cause of death in terms of years of life lost given the young age of so many car crash victims and the number of years they would have been expected to live if they had not died in a car crash. Only cancer and heart disease are responsible for more years of life lost (Subramanian 2011).



この、テクニカルレビューについて、今月24日にはウェビナーがあるそうです

Join a webinar on Our Built and Natural Environments Wednesday, July 24, 2:00 - 3:00 Eastern.



環境デザインに関わる方々は必見ですね、ご参考まで





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